Laboratory of Mark Examination

Mark identification is a forensic science discipline that aims to determine and identify objects as the source of marks on crime scenes. Beyond this task the forensic mark experts take part in solution of theoretical problems like reconstruction of events. There are some object which able to leave unique impression 2D and 3D marks, or striated tool marks. This includes piece of shoeprints, vehicle tireprint, toolmarks on the different surfaces eg. clothing, vehicles, mechanikal locks and other devices of property protection.  
Examiners use optical microscopic systems, such as stereo microscope, photomacroscope, endoscope, borescope, comparative microscope and special lighting systems. If it is necessary they use a special shoe identification and casework management system (Sicar6).
The experts of the laboratory are active members of the ENFSI MWG (European Network of Forensic Science Institutes Mark Working Group).

Accreditation fields of Laboratory of Mark Examination:

  • examination of mechanical locks
  • comparative examination of stretched toolmarks
  • comparative examination of shoeprints

Laboratory of Firearm Examination

The examiners of the laboratory identify special toolmarks left behind by projectiles, cartridge cases and shotshell components. The basic or classic job of a forensic expert is to identify the weapons. To perform their study they use special microscopes, bullet speedometer and special equipment. 
The laboratory has been developed with Ballistic Identification System (BIS) EVOFINDER 4x4. The system consists of a Specimen Analysis System (SAS), a Data Acquisition Stations (DAS) and an Expert WorkStations (EWS). The SAS is aimed to operate of BIS EVOFINDER®, to carry out an automatic identification of the object under examination against the objects in the database and store highquality digital images with corresponding information. The DAS is aimed for digital recording of the objects surfaces – “virtual” objects creation — and saving them in the database. The EWS is aimed for carrying out ballistic expertise (identification) as well as sending the request to the SAS for automatic correlation of the “virtual” objects stored in the database. That provides the experts a list of similar objects for taking a final decision as to the expertise results.
The experts of the laboratory are active members of the ENFSI EWG Firearms/GSR (European Network of Forensic Science Institutes Expert Working Group Firearms).

Accreditation fields of Laboratory of Firearm Examination:

  • muzzle velocity measurement and muzzle energy calculation
  • examination of weapons
  • examination of ammunitions
  • comparative examination of projectiles
  • comparative examination of cartridge cases


Laboratory of Handwriting and Document Examination

Handwriting and document experts primarily give advisory opinion in criminal cases, also they can be appointed in civil actions, administrative, notary and mediatory processes. Usually there is a need of initiating an expert in the investigation of cases when there is forgery of private and official documents, defrauding, black-mailing and manslaughter.
The basic or classic job of a forensic handwriting expert is to identify the author of the unknown or questioned handwritings. The essence of the expert method is to explore the uniqueness of the examined writings throughout the characteristics of the writings, i. e. to compare and value them. The professional statements depend on the quantity and quality of the available questioned and specimen handwritings.

The professional questions can relate to the facts that are in connection with the creation of the writing, for example, if there are any signs of extraordinary circumstances under which the writing was created. During the examination, the possible changing of the natural writing has to be taken into consideration, while distinguishing the alterations, disguises and forgery and their types and the methods.
In the cases of anonymous letters, or if there is not a possible criminal, an attempt can be made narrowing the focus of the investigation, the demographic scope of the suspects. It is carried out for example on the basis of the frequency of occurence of handwriting features in male and female handwritings.
Another group of the examinations are the technical handwriting and document examinations. These are, for example, revealing original content from the invisible, hardly seen or indented handwritings, recovering the text of the deleted, crossed or covered writings, also answering the questions in connection with the general characteristics of the document, its additional modifications, the writing material and the writing tools.
The handwriting experts do their job with the help of optical equipments, different lights, certain devices which are for examining the documents and an electrostatics detection apparatus.

The competence of the criminological document examination covers a larger range of documents in the common sense. Other than the most often occurring personal and travel documents there can be other subjects of the examination, for example: lottery, stamps, postal checks, envelopes, receipts, contracts or even a piece of paper found at the crime scene. Document examinations are essentially based on the optical examination of the individual elements of the document. These are the followings: the carriers (paper, plastic, etc.), the print elements, the safety elements and the filling out process. Primarily, the examination is carried out by a microscope or a document examiner device.
The document examining devices allow multiple exposure modes within one device. Both emission and reflection properties of the document elements can be examined in the ultraviolet, the visible and the near infrared ranges. It makes it possible to detect otherwise unseen phenomena. Also, the follow-up changes on the original document can be detected (e.g. washing, transcription) or the usage of materials other than the material of the original document. The laboratory uses non-destructive (mainly optical) examination methods.

Accreditation fields of Laboratory of Handwriting and Document Examination:

  • forensic handwriting examination on the basis of the placement, general and special features of the handwriting


Head of the Department of Criminalistics:

János Halmai
Department of Criminalistics
director, forensic trace expert