The Department of Dactyloscopy includes two sections: Laboratory of Latent Print Examination; Laboratory of Person Identification and Database Management.
We have six separated databases in AFIS:
- Under Criminal procedure database;
- Asylum seekers procedure database;
- Refugees procedure database;
- Elimination database;
- International database;
- Latent database.
There are tenprints and palms in the criminal and elimination databases as well as there are only tenprints in the asylum seekers, refugees and international databases.
Actually we store approximately 2 million cards. More than 200 thousand palm prints and approximately 60 thousand latents.
Approximately there are incoming one hundred thousand cards per year regarding criminal processing.
Laboratory of Person Identification and Database Management
We store the fingerprint and palmprint cards here. The cards have made by ink or LiveScan.
We send only the biometric data without personal data into the AFIS. The minutiae are automatic placed and the tenprints searching against tenprints also automatic. If it is a HIT the tenprint examiner has to check it manually. Every result needs to verify by examiner in Hungary. AFIS stores the fingerprints and these are searched in the unsolved latent database. The result of the search goes to the owner expert of the latents.
Laboratory of Latent Print Examination
Hungarian experts use the numerical standard to identification. Hungarian numerical standard requires 10 minutiae. We also consider the qualitative criteria (for example clarity, extent of distortion) and other facts (such as surface, method of development).
The experts work according to the ACE-V (Analysis, Comparison, Evaluation, and Verification) standard method.
Fingerprint examination consists two phases. In the first phase of examination, we analyze the visible prints. The purpose of the analyze is to determine whether the print is used for the comparison or not. The second phase is fingerprint identification examination. Because of we want to determine their mutually identical details under this examination we compare latent print with known tenprints and/or palm prints.
First the expert exams the latent print manually with magnifying glass or AFIS (in case of digital photos) and decides whether the latent print is suitable or not. It means that the latent print could have had minimum 10 minutiae and the qualitative criteria are sufficient as well.
The expert compares the suitable latent print with the innocent(s)’ and/or suspect(s)’ cards. If it is NO HIT – we scan or import the latent into the AFIS. We use Cogent AFIS in Hungary.
The processing may be automatically or may be manually. After the digitalization expert edits the latent print. It means that the expert put each minutia on the image of latent print. We can sign the pattern, core and delta.
After the phase of edit the expert sends the print for searching in the database of ten/palmprints. The AFIS provides a candidate list (with 5-25 potential cards). The expert checks the minutiae in every single candidate.
If one of the candidates is HIT, the expert checks it manually. Expert asks the Fingerprint Card from the Laboratory of Person Identification and Database Management. After the result had been checked with magnifying glass, two other experts also check it. If it is NO HIT, the latent print is saved into the AFIS database, and searched constantly among the new cards.
If this procedure is complete, the report is going to be made.
We have used the PRÜM data exchange since 2012.
Nowadays we have possibilities to search in databases of 18 Prüm’s member states (Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Nederland, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain).
As a result potentially number of searchable fingerprints has been increased multiple times.
In case of Prüm procedures the dactyloscopy data exchange is completely anonymized.
We use EURODAC System concerning asylum seekers and refugees applications since 2004. Herewith Hungary takes part in the international responsibility. Since July 21st of 2015 there is possibility to initiate law enforcement searches because of the fight of the terrorism and serious crimes.
We have contact to the Interpol Bureau thereby we can receive initiates from any countries of the world.
The Department of Dactyloscopy has accreditation since 2012 according to the ISO 17025. We involve in several international proficiency tests (for example CTS, Ron Smith & Associates).
Head of the Department of Dactyloscopy:
Department of Dactyloscopy
director, forensic fingerprint expert